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中考英语阅读理解六大技巧盘点

2020-03-24 13:23:23
1. 讲究阅读方法     (1)依据主题句定短文的中心:任意一篇文章通常是围绕一个中心展开并且由段落组成的;段落之间有着内在的紧密联系,而表达段落主题的句子叫主题句,通常置于段落的开头,有时在段落末尾和中间;其它的句子是用来说明和阐述主题句的;若把一个个主题句加以整理,你能悟出其中心思想,同时还可以回避、排除个别生词、难句(等困难信号)所带来的干扰,但也有一些文章的中心思想常贯穿在全文中,因而要综观全文,对全文有一个透彻的理解才行。     如:     My friend Matt and I arrived at the Activity Centre on Friday evening. The accommodation wasn’t wonderful, but we had everything we needed (beds, blankets, food ), and we were pleased to be out of the city and in the fresh air.     On Saturday morning we met the other ten members of our group. Cameron had come along with two friends, Kevin and Simon, while sisters Carole and Lynn had come with Amanda. There were some other members I didn’t know. We had come from different places and none of us knew the area.     We knew we were going to spend the weekend outdoors, but none of us was sure exactly how. Half of us spent the morning caving while the others went rock-climbing and then we changed at lunchtime. Matt and I went to the caves (岩洞) first. Climbing out was harder than going in, but after a good deal of pushing, we were out at last. Though we were covered with mud, we were pleased and excited by what we’d done.     This passage mainly talks about ______________.     A. the writer’s friends at the Activity Center     B. the writer’s experience at the Activity Center     C. outdoor sports at the Activity Center     D. how to go rock-climbing and caving     [参考答案B] 上述这段短文的中心是说明“the writer’s experience at the Activity Center.”。作者以及作者的朋友,还有组上的其他一些成员一起在活动中心度周末的一些活动以及感受。     (2) 掌握具体事实和重要细节:阅读文章时,要求学生养成辨认和记忆具体事实、重要细节的习惯。因为具体事实、重要细节是主题句的扩展、补充、说明或例证,是用来支持和说明中心思想的,而且是阅读理解测试的重要组成部分。     如:If someone asks me: “Do you like music?” I’m sure I will answer him or her: “Of course, I do.” because I think music is an important part of our lives.     Different people have different ideas about music. For me, I like rock music because it’s so exciting. And my favorite rock band, the “Foxy Ladies” (酷妹) is one of the most famous rock bands in the world. I also like pop music. My classmate LiLan loves dance music, because she enjoys dancing. My best friend, Jane, likes jazz music (爵士乐). She thinks jazz is really cool.     “I like dance music and rock very much.” says my brother, “because they are amazing.”     But my mother thinks rock is boring. “I like some relaxing (轻松的) music,” she says. That’s why she likes country music, I think.     ①The writer likes music because he thinks ____________.     A. it’s an exciting part of our lives     B. it’s an amazing part of our lives     C. it’s an important part of our lives     ②What kind of music does the writer like?     A. Rock and pop music. B. Rock and dance music. C. Jazz and country music.     ③Who likes dancing?     A. The writer. B. Li Lan. C. Jane.     ④The writer’s mother thinks that country music is __________.     A. amazing B. boring C. relaxing     ⑤ How many people’s ideas about music are talked about in this passage (短文)?     A. 4. B. 5. C. 6.     这是几道重要事实和细节的辨认题,全是围绕短文的主题句“Different people have different ideas about music”来展开说明的,起补充举例作用。答案分别为 ① C ② A ③ B ④ C ⑤ B。     (3) 运用构词法、语境线索等帮助来推测关键词义:在阅读文章的过程中,常常会遇到一些生词,如果不懂得这些词义就会妨碍理解,但大部分生词的词义是可以根据上下文,结合构词法、借助文章中的语境线索帮助在理解基础上猜测其词义,这有助于加快阅读速度,提高阅读理解能力。如:     Water is all around us. Water is in the ocean. Water is in the lakes and rivers. Water is in the air. There is more water than land on the earth. All living things must have it. We must have it, too. We cannot live without drinking water. Sometimes, we do not have all the water that we need. The land will dry up without water. Sometimes, there can be too much water in the land. If it rains very, very hard, the rain water will run down the hill. It takes some of the land with it when it runs down the hills. It is called erosion when the water takes the land away.     “Erosion” in the passage means ____________.     A. 地震 B. 雪崩 C. 侵蚀 D. 霜冻     根据前面的语句If it rains very, very hard, the rain water will run down the hills. It takes some of the land with it when it runs down the hills.解释可以推知erosion是一种自然地理现象,即“侵蚀”,答案为C。     2. 训练阅读速度     在阅读中,我们或多或少会碰到一些生词和不熟悉的短语,这些生词和短语会妨碍我们对文章中心的理解,但我们总是查阅词典也会影响阅读的速度。为了不查词典又能破解生词词义,并理解好文章的中心,要求考生根据构词法判断词义。如:This material is unreadable.中 unreadable是生词。学生可以根据词根 read ,知道 un和 able分别为前缀和后缀,那么 unreadable的意义就不难猜测了;还可以培养学生根据生词与上下文的关系来猜测其意义。生词所在的句子、段落会提供很多的暗示和线索,依据这些暗示和线索就可以理解生词的词义了。如:同义词反义词线索;解释性线索;例证性线索;标点符号线索等。如:     A. The herdsman, who looks after sheep, earns about 650 yuan a year.     定语从句中的 looks after sheep 就解释了 herdsman的词义为“牧人”。     B. Like her younger sister who is gregarious, Alice also likes to make friends.句首的 like(像)这个语境线索说明:句中的gregarious与 likes to make friends意义相近。     通过这些方式可以帮助学生加快阅读速度,进一步提高阅读正确率。     3. 改进阅读方式     (1)预测:培养学生依据文章标题(副标题)、插图以及相关的背景知识和社会生活经验,对文章的大致内容预测以及可能涉及到的词汇,然后阅读文章的第一段,并对自己的预测进行验证、纠正,同时抓住主题句、关键词,从而更好地从整体上去理解和把握文章的中心。     (2)略读:指导学生快速浏览全文,领会文章大意,辨析文体,掌握篇章结构,进而抓住文章的中心。     (3)查读:指导学生在浏览全文的基础上进行查读,以回答个别事实细节性的问题。有些细节性的问题不能直接在短文中找到答案,必须进行必要的综合、归纳、转换才能获得,也就是要在直接可获得的事实和细节的基础上经过综合、归纳、转换间接地获得所需要的事实和细节。它通常涉及数据、时间、人称、代词的指代、动作的行为的关联、动作行为者与承受者、地点和空间、表态方式、因果、条件、内涵与外延等。如:     One day Mrs Wison went shopping with Tracy and Ben. They went to the supermarket in the new shopping center.     “Why do you buy things here?” Tracy wanted to know. “Because they are cheaper here than at the corner store near our home,” Mrs. Wilson said. “Help me check the prices, please.”     The Wilsons were not rich and Mrs. Wilson was always careful with her money. She looked carefully at the prices of things. She bought lots of things in the supermarket. When they got home, the children said, “We don’t think you saved money by going to the supermarket.” “Of course I did,” Mrs. Wilson said “Everything was cheaper there.”     “We know,” the children said, “but we came home by taxi because we had too much to carry. The taxi fare was more than the money that you saved !”     Mrs Wilson added everything up. Her children were right.     “Well done,” she said. “Next time we’ll do the shopping nearby.”     ①The things at the corner store were ____ than those in the supermarket.     A. cheaper B. nicer C. more expensive D. Better     ② Mrs. Wilson _________ in the end.     A. spent more money B. paid less money     C. lost some money D. saved a little money     这两个问题都是细节性问题,但又不能直接从文章中得出答案,要经过分析和计算间接地获得事实细节。①选C。由 Mrs. Wilson 的话“Because they are cheaper here than at the corner store near our home. ”分析可知the things at the corner store were more expensive.②选A。 Mrs. Wilson 在超级市场买的东西是便宜的,但返回时由于东西多结果打的士回家将打的士的费用摊进去就高于节省的费用了,因此可以知道:Mrs. Wilson spent more money in the end.   新初三快扫码关注   中考网微信公众号   每日推送学习技巧,学科知识点   助你迎接2020年中考!    
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