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2018中考英语知识点梳理:定语从句讲解

2020-03-24 12:25:20

    【考点扫描】

    中考对定语从句的考查主要集中在以下几个方面:

    1.定语从句的功用和结构

    2.关系代词和关系副词的功用

    3.各个关系代词和关系副词的具体用法

    考查的主要形式是单项填空、完型填空、短文填空和完成句子。阅读理解和书面表达肯定也要用到定语从句。

    【名师精讲】

    一. 定语从句的功用和结构

    在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫做定语从句。被定从句修饰的词叫做先行词。定语从句必须放在先行词之后。引导定语从句的关联词有关系代词和关系副词。例如:

    This is the present that he gave me for my birthday.

    Do you know everybody who came to the party?

    I still remember the night when I first came to the village?

    This is the place where Chairman Mao once lived.

    二. 关系代词和关系副词的功用

    关系代词和关系副词用来引导定于从句,在先行词和定语从句之间起纽带作用,使二者联系起来。关系代词和关系副词又在定语从句中充当一个成分。关系待客做主语,宾语,定语,关系副词可作状语。

    1. 作主语:关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词的人称和数须和先行词一致。例如:

    I don’t like people who talk much but do little.

    The cars which are produced in Hubei Province sell very well.

    2. 作宾语:

    She is the person that I met at the school gate yesterday.

    The book that my grandmother gave me is called “The Great Escape”.

    3. 作定语

    关系代词whose在定语从句中作定语用。例如:

    What’s the name of the young man whose sister is a doctor?

    The girl whose father is a teacher studies very hard.

    4. 作状语

    I’ll never forget the day when I first came to Beijing.

    This is the house where I was born.

    三. 各个关系代词和关系副词的具体用法

    1. who 指人,在定语从句中作主语。例如:

    The person who broke the window must pay for it.

    The boy who is wearing the black jacket is very clever.

    2. whom指人,在定语从句中作宾语。例如:

    Do you know the young man (whom) we met at the gate?

    Mr Lee (whom) you want to see has come.

    3. whose 指人,在定语从句中作定语。例如:

    The girl whose mother is ill is staying at home today.

    I know the boy whose father is a professor.

    4. which指物,在定语从中作主语或宾语。例如:

    A dictionary is a book which gives the meaning of words.

    Here is the book (which) the teacher mentioned yesterday.

    5. that多指物,有时也指人,在定语从句中作主语或宾语。例如:

    I’ve read the newspaper that(which) carries the important news.

    Who is the person that is reading the newspaper over there?

 

   6. when 指时间,在定语从句中作状语。例如:

    I’ll never forget the time when we worked on the farm.

    He arrived in Beijing on the day when I left.

    7. where 指地点,在定语从句中作状语。例如:

    This is the house where we lived last year.

    The factory where his father works is in the east of the city.

    四. 关系代词 whom, which 在定语从句中作介词宾语时,可以和介词一起放于先行词与定语从句之间,有时为了关系紧凑也可以将 whom 与 which 与先行词紧挨着书写,而将介词置于定语从句的后面,如:

    That was the room in which we had lived for ten years. = That was the room

    which we had lived in for ten years.

    五. 具体使用时还要注意下列问题:

    1. 只能使用that,不用which 的情况:

    (1) 先行词是all, few, little, nothing, everything, anything 等不定代词时。例如:

    All that he said is true.

    (2) 先行词被only, no, any, all,等词修饰时。例如:

    He is the only foreigner that has been to that place.

    (3) 先行词是序数词或被序数词修饰的词。例如:

    He was the second (person) that told me the secret.

    (4) 先行词是形容词最高级或被形容词最高级修饰的词。

    This is the best book (that) I have read this year.

    (5) 先行词既包括人又包括物时。例如:

    He talked about the people and the things he remembered.

    2. 只能用which,不用that 的情况:

    (1) 在非限制性定语从中。例如:

    The meeting was put off, which was exactly what we wanted.

    (2) 定语从句由介词+关系代词引导,先行词是物时。例如:

    The thing about which he is talking is of great importance.

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